Published paper

Paper: Validity and Reliability Evidence of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPN-ES) in a European Sample of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors : Skordilis Emmanouil, Greenlees Iain, Chrysagis Nikolaos, Grammatopoulou Eirini, Papadopoulou Vasiliki, Pardo Gill Francisco Javier , Gaillard Joel, Skordilis Antonios, Dias Joao, Serras Dionysios

Abstract :

The study was based on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and examined the validity and reliability of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPN-ES)[27] of individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) from Greece, Cyprus and Portugal. The participants were 152 adolescents and adults with ID, 72 females and 80 males, with high (N = 92), moderate (N = 22) or low functionality (N = 38), aging 16 to 51 years old, attending daily centers in Greece (N = 100), Portugal (N = 20) and Cyprus (N = 32). Data was collected from a psychologist and a coach, both employed at the respective daily centers. The statistical analyses revealed sufficient predictive validity evidence through the intercorrelations of the BPN-ES (autonomy, competence and relatedness) with the Pictorial Motivation Scale (intrinsic motivation – IM, self-determined extrinsic motivation – SDEM, non-self-determined extrinsic motivation – NSDEM, and amotivation – AM). Further, significant differences were found among individuals who differed according to functionality with respect to autonomy and competence (construct validity evidence). The BPN-ES Cronbach alpha indexes (.703 to .709) and the Intraclass coefficients (.689 to .831) provided sufficient internal consistency and   test retest reliability evidence. The present findings supported the BPN-ES psychometrics for individuals with ID and are discussed accordingly. Certain limitations however, such as co morbidities, sampling methods, established golden standard, blind assessments and ethnic backgrounds do not allow generalization without caution. Future researchers may overcome these limitations and establish a solid motivation measure across Europe, based on the SDT, for individuals with ID.


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